Welcome to Cheatinfo, your number one source for Gamecheats, Action Games, PC Cheats and Codes along with high resolution game. Cheatinfo is updated everyday. Cheatbook your source for Cheats, Video game Cheat Codes and Game Hints, Walkthroughs, FAQ, Games Trainer, Games Guides, Secrets, cheatsbook. KEY Unread Read Sticky Locked Announcement. Find your game forum. Newest Forum Mystery Tales Dangerous Desires. Kingdom Hearts II is the sequel to Kingdom Hearts and Kingdom Hearts Chain of Memories, and. Ancient Chinese coinage Wikipedia. Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins. These coins, used as early as the Spring and Autumn period 7. BCE, took the form of imitations of the cowrie shells that were used in ceremonial exchanges. The Spring and Autumn period also saw the introduction of the first metal coins however, they were not initially round, instead being either knife shaped or spade shaped. Round metal coins with a round, and then later square hole in the center were first introduced around 3. BCE. The beginning of the Qin Dynasty 2. BCE, the first dynasty to unify China, saw the introduction of a standardised coinage for the whole Empire. Subsequent dynasties produced variations on these round coins throughout the imperial period. At first the distribution of the coinage was limited to use around the capital city district, but by the beginning of the Han Dynasty, coins were widely used for such things as paying taxes, salaries and fines. Ancient Chinese coins are markedly different from coins produced in the west. Chinese coins were manufactured by being cast in molds, whereas western coins were typically cut and hammered or, in later times, milled. Chinese coins were usually made from mixtures of metals such copper, tin and lead, from bronze, brass or iron precious metals like gold and silver were uncommonly used. The ratios and purity of the coin metals varied considerably. Most Chinese coins were produced with a square hole in the middle. This was used to allow collections of coins to be threaded on a square rod so that the rough edges could be filed smooth, and then threaded on strings for ease of handling. Official coin production was not always centralised, but could be spread over many mint locations throughout the country. Aside from officially produced coins, private coining was common during many stages of history. Various steps were taken over time to try to combat the private coining and limit its effects and making it illegal. At other times private coining was tolerated. The coins varied in value throughout the history. Some coins were produced in very large numbers during the Western Han, an average of 2. Other coins were of limited circulation and are today extremely rare only six examples of Da Quan Wu Qian from the Eastern Wu Dynasty 2. Occasionally, large hoards of coins have been uncovered. For example, a hoard was discovered in Jiangsu containing 4,0. Tai Qing Feng Le coins and at Zhangpu in Shaanxi, a sealed jar containing 1,0. Ban Liang coins of various weights and sizes, was discovered. Pre Imperial 7. BCEeditThe earliest coinage of China was described by Sima Qian, the great historian of c. Kingdom Under Fire Gold Edition' title='Kingdom Under Fire Gold Edition' />BCE With the opening of exchange between farmers, artisans, and merchants, there came into use money of tortoise shells, cowrie shells, gold, coins Chinese pinyin qin, knives Chinese pinyin do, spades Chinese pinyin b This has been so from remote antiquity. While nothing is known about the use of tortoise shells as money, gold and cowries either real shells or replicas were used to the south of the Yellow River. Although there is no doubt that the well known spade and knife money were used as coins, it has not been demonstrated that other items often offered by dealers as coins such as fish, halberds, and metal chimes were also used as coins. They are not found in coin hoards, and the probability is that all these are in fact funerary items. Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest use of the spade and knife money was in the Spring and Autumn period 7. BCE. As in ancient Greece, socio economic conditions at the time were favourable to the adoption of coinage. CowrieseditInscriptions and archaeological evidence shows that cowrie shells were regarded as important objects of value in the Shang Dynasty c. BC. In the Zhou period, they are frequently referred to as gifts or rewards from kings and nobles to their subjects. Later imitations in bone, stone or bronze were probably used as money in some instances. Some think the first Chinese metallic coins were bronze imitations of cowrie shells23 found in a tomb near Anyang dating from around 9. BC, but these items lack inscriptions. Similar bronze pieces with inscriptions, known as Ant Nose Money Chinese pinyin y b qin or Ghost Face Money Chinese pinyin gu lin qin were definitely used as money. They have been found in areas to the south of the Yellow River corresponding to the State of Chu in the Warring States period. Daily paper. Local, state, and wire news and commentary. Photo galleries, business and obituaries. One hoard was of some 1. Their weight is very variable, and their alloy often contains a high proportion of lead. The name Ant and Nose refers to the appearance of the inscriptions, and is nothing to do with keeping ants out of the noses of corpses. Gold coins marked with Ying yuan. Ying being the name of the Chu capital. The only minted gold of this period known is Chu Gold Block Money Chinese pinyin yng yun, which consists of sheets of gold 35 mm thick, of various sizes, with inscriptions consisting of square or round stamps in which there are one or two characters. They have been unearthed in various locations south of the Yellow River indicating that they were products of the State of Chu. One of the characters in their inscription is often a monetary unit or weight which is normally read as yuan Chinese pinyin yun. Pieces are of a very variable size and thickness, and the stamps appear to be a device to validate the whole block, rather than a guide to enable it to be broken up into unit pieces. Some specimens have been reported in copper, lead, or clay. It is probable that these were funeral money, not circulating coinage, as they are found in tombs, but the gold coins are not. Jade pieceseditIt has been suggested that pieces of jade were a form of money in the Shang Dynasty. Money brandeditMetal money brands Chinese pinyin qin pi were rarely used in the state of Chu. They were used again in the Song dynasty. Buku Kedokteran Gratis Pdf To Word. Spade moneyeditHollow handled spade moneyeditHollow handled spades Chinese pinyin bb are a link between weeding tools used for barter and stylised objects used as money. They are clearly too flimsy for use, but retain the hollow socket by which a genuine tool could be attached to a handle. This socket is rectangular in cross section, and still retains the clay from the casting process. In the socket the hole by which the tool was fixed to its handle is also reproduced. Prototype spade money This type of spade money is similar in shape and size to the original agricultural implements. Kingdom Under Fire Gold Edition' title='Kingdom Under Fire Gold Edition' />While some are perhaps robust enough to be used in the fields, others are much lighter and bear an inscription, probably the name of the city which issued it. Some of these objects have been found in Shang and Western Zhou tombs, so they date from c. BC. Inscribed specimens appear to date from c. BC. 1 5. Square shoulder spades Square shoulder spade coins have square shoulders, a straight or slightly curving foot, and three parallel lines on the obverse and reverse. They are found in quantities of up to several hundreds in the area corresponding to the Royal Domain of Zhou south Hebei and north Henan. Archaeological evidence dates them to the early Spring and Autumn period, around 6. BC onwards. The inscriptions on these coins usually consist of one character, which can be a number, a cyclical character, a place name, or the name of a clan.
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